A Quick History of These Wee Isles


Early Britain


First farmers arrive 6000 years ago from SE Europe


Skara Brae in Orkney is the best preserved prehistoric village in N Europe


4000 years ago people started making bronze


Bronze age then Iron age


Maiden Castle in Dorset is an iron age hill fort


Coins minted in Britain inscribed Iron Age kings marks the beginning of British history




Julius Caesar invaded Britain in 55BC – FAIL!


AD 400 Emp Claudius led them in a new invasion – WIN!


Boudicca fought them – she was queen of the Iceni - BADASS


She got a statue on Westminster Bridge in London (later)




410 Romans scatter


Jutes, Angles and Saxons come over and by AD 600 there are Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in what is now called England


Angles and Saxons spoke Anglo-Saxon (shocker)


Sutton Hoo is a place where they buried one of these kings with a bunch of treasures and armour and stuff – they put him in a ship for some reason and buried it


Western bits of Britain didn’t have Anglo-Saxons


A.S. weren’t Christians, but then they were because the Irish


St Patrick, and St Columba – the latter was on Iona which is pretty and I’ve been there


St Augustine from Rome came and helped convert folks down south and became the first Archbishop of Canterbury




They’re from Denmark and Norway (or what is now Denmark and Norway.)

Showed up in AD 789 and raided towns and got slaves


I come from the land of the ice and snow from the midnight sun where the hot springs flooooow


They started to stick around


King Alfred the Great united the Anglo-Saxons and defeated the Vikings (he later got a show on TV)


Vikings stuck around anyway especially in the east and north of England, known as the Danelaw


Lots of place names like the AWESOMELY NAMED Grimsby and Scunthorpe are from the Vikings whose language was BADASS


Anglo-Saxons ruled for the most part except the part where the Danes ruled


One of the Danish rulers was Cnut (which I wish was pronounced “see-nut” like a rapper) AKA Canute




1066 Bill the Conqueror blah blah defeated Harold blah blah


Hastings, Battle of


Bayeux Tapestry in France (there’s a Game of Thrones version in Belfast, yeesssss)


In a weird stroke of history Norman became a nerdy name


Normans changed things


Normans conquered Wales but they’re hard so they won it back


Normans fought Scots but didn’t invade and days like today I can see why


Bill did the Doomsday book - was like a census


Middle Ages (cue lute music)


From after the Norman conquest until about 1485 (“about”? oddly specific)


Lots of war


English kings (not Anglo Saxon anymore I guess) fought the Welsh who are hard but lost this time


1284 Ed 1 of England – Statute of Rhuddlan – annexed Wales into England’s crown

Built big castles in Wales which are still there and AWESOME – Conwy and Caernarvon


Tried in Scotland too but get tae fuck bc FREEEDOOOOOM


Bobby Bruce 1314 Bannockburn kicked English ass


Ireland also independent.  By 1200 English ruled the “Pale” around Dublin, and some lords and important people accepted the authority of the English king


Wars abroad too (this is a very Anglocentric history): Crusades, Christians went to get the Holy Land (and is there one ounce of sensitivity that perhaps a lot of the people taking this f-ing test will be Muslims?  WTF seriously)


Long war with France – 100 year war that lasted 116 years


Agincourt, Battle of, 1415 – King Henry V kicked French butt




Muret 1213

Bannockburn 1314

Agincourt 1415

Marj Dabiq 1516

Paya Honda 1617

Cape Fear River 1718

Peterloo 1819

Warsaw 1920

???!!! 2021


Well that was fun


Black Death


Feudalism bc the Normans – King gave land to lord for help in war – landowners had to send people to fight – serfs grew food on the land and worked for the lords but couldn’t leave


Same in Scotland I don’t know why because they were not defeated


Not in highlands – they had Clans and such


1348 BOOM - Black Death beahtches


1/3 population dies


This made new social classes, including the gentry who were people who had a lot of land


Killed people in the Pale in Ireland too

Legal and Political Changes


Middle ages, Parliament developed


First it was a council of advisors, including noblemen and leaders in the church


King was really powerful until 1215 when John was forced to agree to some demands, and then MAGNA CARTA which means Big Charter but sounds way cooler


It established the idea that even the king is subject to laws, rights of nobility, restricted the kings power to make laws and collect taxes


Two houses in Parliament: House of Lords = nobility, big landowners, and bishops; House of Commons – Knights (smaller landowners) and wealthy merchants


Only small part of the population elected them


Similar in Scotland, except, 3 houses, called Estates = Lords, Commons and Clergy


Judges being independent of govt got established


Common law = process of precedence – in Scotland laws were codified or written down


A distinct identity


After the Normans, kings and noble types spoke Norman French, but everybody else spoke Anglo-Saxon (uh, hello, Wales, highlands and islands of Scotland?) These two languages form one language called English, which maintained numerous Norman words, such as, maintain, numerous, and Norman (which means nerd).  Also distinct and identity, all the posh words are Norman because they were rich, and all the nice homely words are Anglo-Saxon, “cordial reception” versus “hearty welcome” etc.  I read a book about it.


By 1400 everbuddy spoke Einglush


Chauser was a mad poet – Canterbury Tales – one of the first books printed by William Caxton, the first English printing press user.  (this is later after Chaucer died)


People spoke Gaelic in Scotland, and in the lowlandy bits, Scots, which wasn’t called Scots but was just English really, but funny.


John Barbour was a poet and wrote The Bruce in Scots. It was about Robert “The Bruce” Bruce.


Castles and cathedrals were built because folks got better at carving stone and there were skilled labour guilds


Stained glass too, ooooOOOooooo

Lots of trading in the middle ages. 


War of the Roses


1455 Civil war over who should be king of England


Two main families, House Lannister and House Stark, claimed the throne. JK it was Lancaster and York.  Lancaster would later become a small town in Kentucky.  Lancaster = red rose, York = white, thus the war of the roses and the symbol of Yorkshire nowadays


Dick III was killed by Hank Tudor at Bosworth and Hank became King Hank VII.  Hank married Dick’s niece Liz and thus the Tudor house was born and they made cool timber frame buildings.  The Tudor symbol was a red rose with a white rose in side it, which is nice bc it meant everybody’s pals now.


So, wars


100 year war with France

Scottish Wars of Independence

War of Roses




The Tudors and the Stuarts


Religious Conflict


To recap: Henry VII won the war of roses and married William of York’s niece


He centralised power because he wanted to keep things peaceful and ensure the ascendancy of the Tudors


Henry the VIII married six times and broke away from Rome – ruled 1509-1547


His wives


Catherine of Aragon – Spanish princess, Mary one surviving child, got divorced bc no son


Anne Boleyn – English, also one daughter, unpopular and a bit of a tart, executed


Jane Seymour – SON!!! But then he died (bet Jane was sweating bullets after that)


Anne of Cleves – German princess – political marriage – didn’t work out


Catherine Howard – Anny Boleyn’s cuz, also executed


Catherine Parr – married late in Henry’s life – survived him and married but then died (which is unremarkable)


Let’s all remember that the church of England exists because Henry VIII wanted to GET A DIVORCE (or, like, a bunch of divorces)


Reformation happening across Europe – gained strength in E, W, and S during 16th century (which was good for keeping Henry’s wedding bed well populated)


Ireland not so much


Wales became formally a part of England in Act for the Government of Wales – welsh Legal system reformed




OK, lightning round – Henry VIII died, his son Ed VI the protestant took over. Everybody’s protestant. Ed died at 15 and ruled for six years then his half-sister Mary the Catholic AKA Bloody Mary took over. Now Everybody’s Catholic (or dead). Then she died too and Anne Boleyn’s daughter Elizabeth I took over and wore lots of fancy dresses and re-established C of England and everybody’s protestant again.  She was protestant but worked things out with the Catholics so everybody’s happy. Folks, never forget that religion is very, very stupid.




Elizabeth was the best. Everyone loved her, and there was even a part II who is still queen now. She and the English defeated the Spanish Armada which was a bunch of ships sent by the Evil Catholic Spaniards with their long twirly moustaches and later Scottish men in bars will tell me that that is what happened to all the Scottish trees but it isn’t and that’s dumb.


The Reformation in Scotland and Mary, Queen of Scots


1560 Scottish Parliament got rid of Catholicism and established a Church of Scotland but it wasn’t really a state church like CoE


Mary Stuart was unimaginatively called Queen of Scots – but oohhh dammmn she was catholic and lived in France, so when she came back it was like major power struggle and she might have killed her own husband and ran off to England where she though cousin Liz would help but instead she was imprisoned for 20 years then, you guessed it, executed.


Her kiddo James the VI took over but something tells me we’re not going to dwell on the monarchy of the Lesser Kingdom of Scotland (bitter) – so it’s back to England!


Exploration, poetry and drama


Liz period = lots of exploration and Sir Francis Drake sailed around the world (not the first) and English people began to settle the eastern shores of America which is why I sound funny to you people


Oh and Shakespeare (1564-1616) was like THE SHAKESPEAR OF PLAYWRITING if you know what I’m saying – but he didn’t know how to spell his name

Lines from his plays became idiomatic of the English language

-once more into the breeches

-to be or not…

- a rose…

-all who wander are not lost

- billy jean is not my lover

-The darling buds of May (honestly who actually says that apart from people like my dad who you get stuck next to at dinner parties.  JK I love my dad.)


James VI and I

Liz never married, no kids. 1603 her cuz James VI of Scotland became James I of England, Wales and Ireland but Scotland stayed a separate country and that’s the last we hear of that (ha, sike)


King James Bible established the proper language for talking to the almighty, thee = you, thine = your, thou, etc, which is still used by Baptist preachers in Kentucky 450 years later for some reason


The bible also seemed to translate the Revelation as the end of TIME as a CONCEPT rather than the end of a PERIOD of time, which is endlessly interesting and why Messiaen wrote music you can’t dance to – this is my own thought and won’t be in my Life in the UK test




was catholic. Henry VIII took title of King of Ireland – English control extended


During Liz and James I reigns, Irish protested the protestants – English govt encouraged Scottish and English Protestants  to settle in Ulster on stolen catholic land and that’s fine and the last we hear of that (ha, sike)


Haha, and I quote “These settlements were known as plantations. Many of the new settlers came from south-west Scotland and other land was given to companies based in London. James later organized similar plantations in several other parts of Ireland. This had serious long-term consequences for the history of England, Scotland and Ireland.“ Yeah no shit! Like the fact that I can’t get dinner at Coias on a Celtic game night.


Well that’s enough about Ireland


The rise of Parliament Funkadelic


Liz was good at getting what she wanted from P.  James I and his kid Charles I less so. Charles I got to be king of E, W, I and S and thought that’s because of God, which is dumb, and tried to rule for a bit without parliament until those pesky scots got up to something and he had to call them back to get cash.


Beginning of the English Civil War


Charles I wanted high a falootin Protestantism with fanciness but this led to problems with the Scots bc they didn’t want his new prayer book and then he had to recall parliament funkadelic to descend with the mothership but the keyboard and bass players were puritan so he didn’t get his money. Oh and the Catholics rebelled in Ireland (what could they possibly be angry about?!) then parliament was like, “give us the army” and Charles was all, “get tae fuck” and tried to arrest the leaders but they weren’t there and no monarch has set foot in the h.o. commons since then.


CIVIL WAR – the Cavaliers (king) vs the Roundheads (parliament) 3…2....1… FIGHT


Marston Moor Charles’ army is defeated and by 1646 Parliament had won. Charles was still king but unwilling to reach an agreement (I guess God being on your side doesn’t always work) and in 1649 he was axed (literally)


REPUBLIC OF ENGLAND, now called the COMMONWEALTH OF ENGLAND – no monarch but General Cromwell basically ran stuff after quellin the rebellin Irish and the remaining Royalist army. He was successful in establishing E Parliament rule in Ireland but killed lots of folks and the Irish don’t like him even now (FOR SOME REASON?!?!?)


Scots didn’t agree about axing Charles I, so declared Charles II king. Charles II of Scotland led a Scottish army to England but Cromwell defeated them at Dunbar and Worcester. Charles hid in a tree and ran off to Europe, so P-funk controlled Scotland, England and Wales (what about Ireland? Doesn’t say)


After all this Cromwell pretty much is the de facto ruler of the new republic. He’s given title Lord Protector and ruled until he died, then his son took over as LP (which sounds kinda like he was king then, no?) but kiddo was weaker than dad so people started wanting a real king again.




1660 p-funk called Charles II back from the Netherlands and he became King of E,W,S,I. Everything kind of balanced out at that point, but for some reason the Irish are still mad about something. CoE = official church again – puritans and RCs don’t get a lot of power.


Plague in 1665 (but not THE PLAGUE, the black one, but another plague, let’s call it THE BEIGH PLAGUE) in London and lots of poor folks died. Then there was a big fire in London called the Big Fire of London and St Pauls burned but was rebuilt by Sr Chris Wren.  Samuel Pepys wrote a book about it.


1679 Habaes Corpus Act

Charles II liked science.  Royal Society was formed.  Halley (comet guy) and Isaac Newton were early members.


Isaac Newton (1643-1727)

  1. Lincolshire, went to Cambridge, Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy – gravity is everywhere! And white light is all the colours mixed together. He was important.


Catholic King (dum dum duuuuuuuuuuuummmmm)


Charles II died and no kids (legit) and his bro James became King James VII of EWSI and there was a bit of a problem but then his daughters were protestant but then his wife had a boy and uh oh folks thought the monarchy would be catholic again.


The Glorious Revolution


James II (from before) had a daughter, Mary, who married William of Orange who was protestant and the ruler of the Netherregions. 1688 English protestants asked William to invade England and call hisself king.  He did, James VII fled and Will became Will III of England and Will II of Scotland.  Called GR bc naebuddy died and Protestantism is awesome bc DIVORCE and it also guaranteed Parliament power which is actually very good. James II invaded Ireland but was defeated at the Boyne and people still go on about it today.  1690. James went back to France and catholics didn’t have it so good. 


James was supported in Scotland – the clans – MacDonalds, Campbells and Glencoe, blah blah you know the rest


Jacobites = James supporters


Doesn’t even talk about Culloden and all that


A Global Power


1689 Bill of Rights – limit kings power = king and queen must be protestant – P elected every 3 years (later became 7)  - every year monarch has to ask p for money for army


This also started party politics (well before the USA) with Whigs and Tories


Also, free press.  1695 newspapers were no longer licenced by govt


Glorious rev began constitutional monarchy


Tho not democratic in the modern sense  - pocket boroughs = constituencies with only one rich family, or rotten boroughs = constituencies with few if any voters – only men with property voted


Growing population


Colonising Americas - Jews came. Huguenots from France (they were protestants  displaced) – they had mad skils


The Act or Treaty of Union in Scotland


William and Mary had Queen Anne, but she had no kids.  Succession a problem.  So therefore (what is the causation here?) 1707 Scotland stopped being independent though it kept legal, education, and church systems. Same parliament though until 1997?


This followed the earlier Regal Union in 1603


Prime Minister


Anne died in 1714, P chose a German, George I, to be king bc he was Anne’s nearest P relative – THEN CULLODEN, ok I get it. The Scots wanted James II’s kid-German George didn’t talk good English and had to rely on the Minister Prime, who was the Prime Minister. The first was Rob Walpole 1721-1742


Rebellion of the Clans


1745 – James II’s Grandson Charles Edward Stuart (Bonnie Prince Charlie) came to Scotland – raised an army – defeated by George II at Culloden bc DIVORCE, Charlie when back to Europe and that’s that.


Clans lost their power after that.


Highland Clearances – folks went to America


The Rabbi, Burns (1759 – 96)


Known as “the beard” in Scotland, Burns was a Jewish poet.  He wrote in Scots and Yiddish. His best work was Auld Lang Syne which is Hebrew for “Jesus is just all right with me”. I made all this up.


The Enlightenment


18th century folks started thinking about stuff more. Adam Smith (a colleague of mine at GU) wrote stuff about economics that would influence Republicans who never read it 200 years later.  James Watt – steam power.  Folks could have their own political and religious views, bc why not?



The Industrial Revolution


Before 18th c it’s all agriculture, then people started building stuff and everything went real fast – people moved to places where there was coal


Bessemer process = mass production of steel was developed ( I did not know this)


Richard Arkwright (1732-92)


Made a carding machine for spinning yarn into fabrics because he stopped making wigs because they were less popular after 18th c – big influence on efficiency at the factory




Bad working conditions cuz no laws


Kids worked


Captain Cook mapped austrailia – Britain got Canada, East India company bc they wanted trade but then just took over India bc what the heck, right?


Lots of trade


Sake Dean Mahomet (1759-1851)


Grew up in Bengali India. Came to B in ’82 – started coffee shop, curry shop and shampooing.


Slave trade


Tho banned since 18th c in Britian, Brits liked their slaves elsewhere. Quakers didn’t though – Bill Bilberforce (William Wilberforce) was a Jesus loving MP and he petitioned to stop it.  By 1833 Emancipation Act got rid of slavery throughout the empire, and it too bad for the black people in the soon-to-be-established confederacy in the recently-established U.S.A.. Does it ever strike you that, as much as we Americans are all about FEEDOOM WOOO!, if you happen to be black, you would have been freed earlier if the revolution, which ostensibly was ALL ABOUT FREEDOM, was lost?


The American War of Independence (I’m stoked about this one bc I never read a textbook account of this not written by Americans)


By 1760s loads of British colonies in America – religious freedom and what not. Brits taxed them but they said you gotta represent, Brits, so P repealed some taxes but things got worse anyway.  THREE…TWO… ONE… FIGHT!!! - 1776 13 ‘merkin colonies declared independence and then beat the brits who recognised the ind. In 1783 (this seems kinda footnote-y for what as THE biggest unit of my 6th grade American History class.)


War with France


18C wars with F. F. revolution, Napoleon, Adm. Nelson killed in Trafalgar (the battle not the square) and got a column for it. Brits led by Duke of Wellington fought the Emperor Napoleon in what ended up being his Waterloo, which was also CALLED WATERLOO  - Wellington was called the iron duke and then made rubber boots and got to be PM.



Union Flag


It’s a bunch of crosses – George, Andrew and Patrick – but where is ST DAVID you ask?  Dunno other than it’s yellow and the flag is ugly enough as it is


The pretty weak explanation is, actually, that Wales had already been united with England, so theirs didn’t count?


The Victorian Age


1837 Victoria became queen at 18 and stuck around until 1901 almost 64 years, which is to say, 63 years.  Brit became greater and middle class got bigger


British Empire


India Australia and lots of Africa – biggest empire ever with 400 million people


Many went overseas, and many overseas came to UK


1870-1914 Eastern Europe and Russian Jews came to escape persecution


Also others from the empire


Trade and industry


Free trade important – Corn Laws repealed in 1846


By 1847 Women and children were only allowed to work for 10 HOURS A DAY – and that was a big improvement har




Brunel (1806-55)


Brunel’s Tunnels and bridges and railway lines and ships – Great Western Railway


Industry was important – also finance


Crimean War


1853-56 Turkey, France, Russia, UK THREE…TWO…ONE… FIGHT!!! First war to be photographed – Victoria gave some soldiers the Victoria Cross medal


Florence Nightingale (1820-1910)


English parents in Italy to which she was born. Nurse. Went to Crimea. Helped then made a training school for nurses called St Thomas. Founder of modern nursing.


Ireland in the 19th C


Conditions in Ireland weren’t so good – then potato famine – lots of irish left for America and English Cities


Fenians wanted total independence – others inc Parnell wanted home rule but to stay in the UK


Right to Vote


1832 increased the no of people who could vote and got rid of the rotten and pocket buroughs – evened things out a bit and made it all more fair


working class non-land owning types still couldn’t vote


Chartists wanted everyone to vote (‘cept women) -1867 people with less property could vote but that was still not a lot of people


Universal voting not until next century


Women had fewer rights - 1870 and 1882 AoPs let women keep their stuff when married


Some even wanted to VOTE – they were called suffragettes which is pronounced soo-fruh-gee-tez


Emmeline Pankhurst (1858-1928)


  1. 1858 – Women’s Franchise League 1889 – wanted to get vote – helped found Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU) - first called soofrugeetez – cival disobedience, and it got quite rough


1918 women over 30 got to vote


then in ’20 it was lowered to 21, same as dudes


Future of the Empire


People didn’t agree on this- Boer war – Boers from the Netherlands – people started to wonder if trying to control the whole world was such a good idea


Empire became Commonwealth in the later 20th C and brits were all, “Yeah, we meant to do that.”


Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936)


B India – lived in India, UK and USA.  Books and poems – Just so Stories and the Jungle Book. 


The 20th C


People were optimistic and stuff got better in early 20th c


Social stuff


Free school meals

Safety in workplace

Fewer slums

Better support for single mums

Local govt more democratic

MPs get paid



ADFF killed in 1914 then WWI

Contributing factors

-growing nationalism,

increasing militarism

imperialism (now we wouldn’t know anything about THAT, would we?)


Team A = Allies – France, Russia, Japan, Belgium, Serbia, then later, Greece, Italy, Romania and USA! USA! USA!


Team B = Central Powers – Germany, Austro-Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria.  Lots of folks died, some good literature was written.  The Somme in 1916 killed 60,000 british people which is a lot


Team A won in 1918


Partition of Ireland


1913 Brits say “home rule in Ireland!”

Protestants didnae like that – then WWI happened

1916 Easter Rising against Brits in Dublin – quelled but then lots of guerrilla type war followed then 1921 piece treaty and in 1922 Ireland became 2 countries.


Irish Free State became RoI in 1949 – then half century of terror and squabbling bc DIVORCE


Interwar period

Things were better when folks were trying to kill each other until Great Depression

NTL people got more cars and lots of houses were built. BBC started


The Second World War


Hitler, later known as Hit-and-miss-ler, bc initially he did really well but then things went south, and his Nazis (who were like, total fascists) stitched up the Reichstag in1933 – When he invaded Poland in ‘39 that’s when brits were like, NO SIR, you CANNOT do that, BAD HITLER and went to war


AXIS = Germany, Italy, Japan and ALLIES = UK, France, Poland, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and South Africa.


Hitler’s Germany Anschluss’d Austria and then Czech., Poland, via Belgium and the Netherlands, then in ’40 France


But then BOOM – Churchill


W Churchill (1874-1965)


Son of politician, became MP in 1900, 1940 PMP, was conservative and smoked too much – lost 1945 General Election but won again in 1951 – stood down in 1964 0 people like him - fat


“We shall fight in our breeches…”


Dunkirk – evacuation of 300000 men – sucked but was real inspirational and there was a film made recently that I don’t want to see


Germans clearly hadn’t read ANY history so invaded the Soviets in 41 – we like to think that the people who won the war all spoke English, but they didn’t


They fought in the air bc Hitler wanted to invade Britain -Summer 1940 Battle of Britain mostly in the air – spitfires and hurricanes and all that


In pacific there was fighting too – Japanese occupied Burma, threatened india, and bombed Pearl Harbour 1941, which wasn’t too smart bc the Americans entered the war


Then the Soviets turned the tide when Hitler invaded


Lots of fighting slowly eroded German dominance – in June 44 D Day – then victory in May 45


US blew up Nagasaki and Hiroshima in august 45 then the war was over – US aided by Rutherford (New Zealander) to split the atom in the Manhattan Project.


Alexander Flemming (1881-1955)

Born in Scotland – went to London, become a doctor.  Looking into the Flu when he discovered penicillin – Howard Florey and Ernst Chain made it into a drug and by the 40s was being produced massly


Britain since 45


Welfare State


Country was in bad shape after the war


45 Clement Atlee Labour govt – Aneurin Bevan led to the NHS – also railways, coal mines, gas, water and elec got nationalised


47 India, Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and some other places in Africa and the Caribbean and Pacific got indy


51-64 Conservatives – PM H Macmillan and decolonisation


Clement Attlee (1883-1967)


Churchill’s deputy – PM from 45 – 51 – lots of nationalisation – better working conditions


William Beveridge (1879-1963)


Beveridge Report – govt fights “giant evils” of Want, Disease, Ignorance, Squalor and Idleness – modern welfare state


RA Butler (1902-1982)


Lord – Butler Act – free secondary education in England and Wales – divided primary and secondary schools


Dylan Thomas (1914-53)


Poet and writer – Under Milk wood radio play – Do Not Go Gentle into that Good Night – 52 – people liked him – made a statue


Migration post war


Lab shortages after war – went to commonwealth to get people


Social Change in the 60s (man, groovy)


Beatles and Stones  - swinging sixties blah blah - People had more stuff


Social laws liberalised

  • Abortion
  • -divorce
  • position of women in the workplace

tech progress too – Brit and France made SST

high rises, concrete and steel


more people immigrated – but fewer than before bc new laws



TV – John Logie Baird 1932 first TV broadcast

Radar – Rob Watson-Watt – first test 1935

Big telescope by Lovell

Turing machine by Alan Turing

Insulin by John Insulin (Macleod)

Warp drives by Michael Warp

Structure of DNA in 53 by folks in London and Cambridge


Problems in the economy in the 70s


Late 70s post war boom came to end – strikes, trade unions and all that


Also NI problems


Europe and the Common Market- EEC and all that – UK becomes full member of the Union but doesn’t’ use the money


79-97 Conservatives – Thatcher – Deregulation – fucking of working class -  Falkland war – then John Major – NI peace process


Thatcher was pals with Reagan


I know the rest of this